Financial Jargon Explained
Here is where we give you a simple guide to the meanings of some of the terms used in today’s capital markets.
These appear in unit trusts where income is re-invested by purchasing more units in the fund
American Depository Receipt, this is a receipt issued by a US bank that holds the underlying shares. ADRs are used by non-US investors to trade on Wall Street
The Alternative Investment Market is a vehicle for listing smaller companies where the listing requirements are less stringent than a full listing
An annual charge taken through the profit and loss account that allows for the gradual write down in the value of an asset, over the expected life of the asset
A policy issued by an Insurance company on retirement that guarantees a fixed rate of income for the remainder of your life
Professional activity aimed at exploiting differences in price between two markets, i.e. London and Johannesburg for Gold shares
A Bear market is a market where the underlying trend is downwards
A measure of share price volatility, and hence risk. Share prices with a high Beta tend to be more volatile than shares with a low Beta
This is the difference between the bid price (the price at which the holder can sell the shares) and the offer price The price at which the purchaser can buy the shares)
This is the price at which an investor sells an underlying asset
The other main asset class is Bonds, either Government Bonds (Gilts) or Corporate Bonds issued by our leading companies.
An issue of extra shares to existing holders free of charge. The market capitalisation is unchanged, however as the price falls to reflect the extra shares
A Bull market is a market where the underlying trend is upwards. These trends can stay in place for several years
The total value of all the assets being used by the business to make money. This is calculated as total assets less total liabilities
Cash flow is the lifeblood of any business. Free cash flow is calculated after deductions of interest payments and tax
Issues by companies, not governments but can go bust. To compensate for this higher risk a higher return is available in the form of a higher yield. Bonds are graded as to their safety. G7 Government Bonds are all AAA, as are some “Supra Nationals” such as the World Bank and European Investment Bank. Next in line are AA Bonds, usually issued by large companies, and so on. The Bonds are graded by Rating Agencies such as Moody’s or Standard and Poors, and the ratings can change up and own during the life of the Bond. Many Institutions are prevented from owing bonds below the AA rating. A further problem with Corporate Bonds is marketability. Whilst a healthy two-way market exists in the mainstream Government Bonds, this is not always the case for Corporate Bonds, which can be difficult to buy or sell during the life of the bond. Tax treatment is also less favourable than for Gilts, although this is equalized via the higher yield. Corporate Bonds therefore carry greater risk but offer greater return than Government Bonds
These are a “half way house” between a Bond and an Equity, but in reality are much closer to a bond. Like bonds they carry a fixed coupon and a maturity date. The difference is that they can be converted into shares of the underlying company at a pre-determined formula, usually once a year. This conversion (at the option of the holder) usually involves a loss of income (the shares yield less than the bonds) and a capital loss (the convertible bond usually trades at a price premium to the equity due to the higher income).
This is an electronic system used to settle trades executed in the market
A distribution from a company to a shareholder usually in cash, although shares and other assets can also be distributed.
This is the amount of income per every £100 invested (as a percentage) and as such is comparable to the rate of interest offered by a Building Society deposit account. As price rises, yield falls and vice versa
The Earnings yield is different from the dividend yield. The dividend yield is the amount a shareholder receives as his/her annual income, expressed as a percentage. The Earnings yield is the company profits relative to the share price; i.e. it is the inverse of the P/E ratio
Equities – Ordinary Shares
These are the most popular for private investors and represent the area of greatest potential reward. However the golden rule of all investment is that reward goes hand in hand with risk – the greater the potential reward, the greater the risk.
An exchange traded fund (ETF) is a type of fund/investment that can track an index, sector, commodity, or other asset, but which can be purchased or sold on a stock exchange the same way equities can. An ETF can be structured to track anything from the price of an individual commodity to a large and diverse collection of securities. ETFs can even be structured to track specific investment strategies.
Global Depositary Receipt, similar to an ADR but used for international stocks traded in London as well
Conventional Gilts carry a fixed coupon and a known price at redemption (usually par, i.e. £100).
Gross Redemption Yield
This is roughly the return available on a bond taking into account the current income plus any capital gain or loss to redemption (in reality it is a very complex discounted cash flow measure)
ICVC / OEIC
The term ICVC stands for Investment Company of Variable Capital. ICVC are structured in such a way that they can be offered on a pan-European basis. The structure has also been known as an OEIC, standing for Open Ended Investment Company.
An ICVC is structured as a company, and is controlled by an Authorised Corporate Director (ACD), who fulfils the role of fund manager. The assets of the ICVC are owned by the “Depository”, whose role is similar to that of the Unit Trust Trustee.
An ICVC is also “Open Ended”, meaning that the number of shares is not fixed. New shares are created for new investors, whilst the shares belonging to investors wishing to sell will be cancelled. The investor will deal with the fund manager directly.
There is a single price at which shares are bought and sold. The fund manager will levy an additional sales charge on purchases of shares. This figure will include any broker commission and certain transactions costs incurred in the creation of new units. An annual management charge will be levied in the same way as for a Unit Trust.
The permitted investments of an ICVC are controlled by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) and are the same as those for a Unit Trust. ICVCs may not borrow for investment purposes, or hold more than 10% of assets in any one company.
Investment companies usually structure their ICVC in such a way as to offer several share classes to cater for different investor needs. For example, ‘Able Investments’ may offer the Able ICVC. The Able ICVC may offer share classes investing in UK Equities, US Equities, European Equities, Corporate Bonds etc. This structure has advantages for the investment firm, but may also make it easier for an investor to switch between funds.
Index linked Bonds (Gilts)
These are Bonds issued mainly by the Government that do not pay a fixed coupon. Instead the “Start up coupon” is increased in line with inflation over the life of the bond. Also the proceeds on redemption are calculated to deliver full index linking over the life of the Bond.
This is where shares are bought or sold at the same time as you have privileged information that is price sensitive. It is illegal, but prosecutions are quite rare
This is a group of private investors that meet to discuss and implement investment strategy on a pooled basis
an individual savings account, a tax exempt investment vehicle for UK resident investors. It allows individuals to hold cash, shares, and unit trusts free of tax on dividends, interest, and capital gains. In 1999 it replaced both personal equity plans (PEPs) and tax-exempt special savings accounts (TESSAs).
Junior ISAs can be set up as a long term savings account by a parent or guardian for individuals under the age of 18 and replaced child trust funds
Market Capitalization is the total value of the entire company, i.e. the sum required to purchase all the outstanding shares
N.A.V. (Net Asset Value)
Net Asset value is calculated by stock market analysts to indicate the asset backing of a particular share. For example, an oil exploration company’s N.A.V is calculated by working out the total value of all it’s oil wells and dividing by the number of shares in issue. However this calculation requires certain assumptions to be made. For example, how much could the assets fetch in a “fire sale”? Alternatively a company may own some prime real estate that is in the books at considerably below market value
This is the price at which an investor purchases an underlying asset
Covered call options
a financial transaction in which an investor selling call options owns an equivalent amount of the underlying security. To execute this, an investor who holds a long position in an asset then writes (sells) call options on that same asset to generate an income stream. The investor’s long position in the asset is the cover because it means the seller can deliver the shares if the buyer of the call option chooses to exercise
Uncovered call options
an investor who writes (sells) call options on any asset they do not current hold nor have an offsetting position in the underlying asset
This is the price of a share relative to the earnings of the company. It is used for comparative purposes. A low P/E is considered “cheap” whilst a high P/E is considered “expensive”. However a low P/E can also be considered “unwanted” whereas a high P/E can indicate “investor demand”. As with much to do with the stock market, beauty is in the eye of the beholder. An easy way to understand P/E ratio is that if you purchase a company (i.e. all the shares) on a P/E of 8, it will take you 8 years to recoup your purchase cost
Although these are called shares they are in reality a fixed income investment (unless they are a convertible preference). They pay a fixed dividend every year and the holder receives no benefit from any upside in the ordinary shares. Also in the winding up of an insolvent company, the preference shareholders rank below the bondholders in any pay out but above the ordinary shareholders. As a result preference shares offer some of the highest yields around. As with all Corporate Bonds marketability can be a problem. One advantage for a corporation considering purchasing preference shares is that the dividend is franked income, that is that it has already suffered corporation tax at source. This means that preference dividends (as with ordinary dividends) are effectively free of tax to a corporate holder
Return on Capital Employed
A the name suggests, this is the return on capital employed and is defined as the profit before interest and tax divided by total assets less current liabilities
This is an offer for existing shareholders to subscribe for extra share usually at a discount
The Stock Exchange Electronic Trading Service (SETS) is the formal name for the electronic trading system introduced by the London Stock Exchange in 1997
a Self Invested Personal Pension is a tax efficient retirement savings account available in the UK. SIPPs give individuals the freedom to allocate their assets in a wide range of investments approved by her majesty’s revenue and customs
Small Self Administered Scheme is a type of UK Occupational Pension Scheme. Schemes are trust-based and established individually, usually by directors of limited companies for specified employees of the company
A short term speculator who subscribes for new issues with the intention of a quick sale and profit
A tax payable on share and property purchases in the UK
Unit Trusts are in fact true “Trusts” in the legal sense, and are controlled by a board of trustees. The Trust Deed forms the constitution of the unit trust. It is drawn up by the manager and the trustee and must state the name of the trust, the category of fund and specify the type of investments that may be held within the trust. The shares of a Unit Trust are known as “units”.
An investment manager is responsible for the purchase and sale of securities and for the provision of valuations for the trustee. The trustee (usually a bank) is the formal owner of the investments. The investment manager must decide upon investment strategy within the trust deed criteria.
A Unit Trust is “Open Ended”, meaning that the number of units is not fixed. New units are created for new investors, whilst the units belonging to investors wishing to sell will be cancelled. This means that the investor will deal with the unit trust manager directly, rather than via a stockbroker.
There is a difference between the buying and selling price of units, known as the bid-offer spread. The investor buys units at the higher price (offer) and may sell at the lower price (bid). The difference between the two prices will represent the manager’s initial charge, any broker commission and certain transactions costs incurred in the creation of new units. In addition an annual management charge will be payable from the assets of the trust. This will cover the expenses incurred in running the fund, and will be higher in the case of equity and specialised funds than for fixed interest or cash funds. The effect of these charges is set out in the Key Features/Simplified Prospectus document.
The permitted investments of a Unit Trust are controlled by the Financial Conduct Authority (FCA) and include company shares and fixed interest investments including gilts, corporate bonds and convertibles. Investments in property, money market deposits and warrants are allowed in funds that clearly state that these are their intended investments.
Unit Trusts may not normally hold more than 10% of their assets in cash. No holding in a single equity may make up more than 10% of the Fund, and that holding may not represent more than 10% of that company’s share capital. Effectively a Unit Trust must have at least 16 holdings, although most have around 50 – 100. Other rules are imposed depending upon the sector that the fund falls into. Unit Trusts may not borrow money in order to increase the size of the portfolio.
This is the date that determines the ownership of the dividend (usually a semi-annual affair). The owner of the shares on ex/dividend day is the legal owner of the dividend
A graph showing the shape of Bond yields of differing maturities
Difference between the yield on government bonds and the yield on equities